中国的考古管理政策和考古遗址保护–童明康副局长在世界考古学大会中间会议上的致辞

中国是一个多民族的国家,地域广阔,有着悠久的历史和灿烂的文化,因此中国的文化遗产十分丰富且种类繁多。它们是中华文化凝炼的结晶,是中华民族团结的纽带。研究好、保护好、传承好这些宝贵的文化遗产,事关全民族共同精神家园建设。

女士们,先生们,朋友们: 大家好!

世界考古学大会中间会议:东亚及东南亚遗产管理

人文社会科学工作者,是文化遗产研究的主干力量,考古学、历史学、民族学、宗教学、文学等方面的专家学者,必须站在文化遗产研究的前列,为文化遗产保护事业贡献自己的全部力量。应积极地、自觉地将满足文化遗产保护的需求,置于自己研究工作的重要位置。

很高兴受邀参加此次“世界考古学大会中间会议”,与世界各国的考古学专家、学者共同探讨当前东亚与东南亚文化遗产管理、国际考古学研究和学科发展的热点与难点问题。首先,我谨代表国家文物局热烈欢迎各位朋友,也对大会的成功举办表示衷心的祝贺。

中国社会科学院考古研究所与纽卡斯尔大学文化与遗产研究中心协办

十几年来,尤其是最近几年中,我国以大遗址保护为重点的文化遗产保护工作取得了巨大进步,政府高度重视,社会广泛参与,投入大,项目多,成效显著。不仅有效地改善了大遗址的保护状况,提升了文化遗产传承效率,还有力地推动了经济社会发展和人民生活改善。

从远古时代,中国各民族的祖先就在富饶的中华大地上劳动、生息、繁衍。中华五千年文明史延绵不断,中国的历史文化遗产分布广泛,数量众多,类型多样,它们是中华文明强大生命力的物化表现,是中华民族的根脉与灵魂所依,也是全人类共有的珍贵文化财富。

Programme for the WAC Inter-Congress on Heritage Management in East and
South East AsiaIn association withThe Institute of Archaeology, Chinese
Academy of Social Sciences and The International Centre for Cultural and
Heritage Studies, Newcastle University, UK

1997年,国务院颁布《关于加强和改善文物工作的通知》,提出把大遗址保护与经济社会发展、人民生活水平提高有机结合,从根本上改变古遗址保护的被动局面。2002年,国家文物局制订《大遗址保护十五规划》,启动实施了50处大遗址保护重点项目。2005年,国家文物局和财政部共同编制《十一五时期大遗址保护规划纲要》,确定100处大遗址保护为重点工程项目。2006年,国务院公布《国家十一五文化发展纲要》,将上述100处大遗址列为国家文化遗产保护重大项目和重点工程。

中国政府将保护、传承和发展珍贵的历史文化遗产作为重要的政府职能,积极探索立足中国国情、符合中国文化遗产保护事业发展需要的特色道路。近年来,更是不断加大文化遗产保护事业的投入和支持力度,特别是在考古遗址保护与管理方面,注重吸纳、总结国内外文化遗产保护的宝贵经验和成果,结合中国的实际情况,开展了大量卓有成效的工作。今天,借此机会,我向各位代表简要介绍一下当前中国的考古管理政策和遗址保护的最新成果。
一、当前中国考古管理的政策
中国是世界上最大的发展中国家。谋求国家的持续、健康、快速发展,不断提高国内经济发展水平,改善人民生活条件,仍将是今后一个时期中国政府的主要任务。根据中国现阶段的国情和文化遗产保护的形势,我们确定和实施了具有中国特色的考古管理政策,主要有以下几个方面:

TUESDAY JULY 5TH participants’ registration, 8 AM to 11PM Wangfujing
Guest House Hotel (Sheke boyuan binguan) Wangfujing dajie 27, Beijing,
China 王府井地区示意图Tele: 86- 10-65591155 Buffet: 1st floor, the
Prime Hotel

过去的五年中,国家文物局、各级地方政府和全国文化遗产工作者,以科学发展观为指导,解放思想,探索创新,勇于实践,走出一条适合中国国情和符合时代特性的文化遗产保护道路。我们做到了:坚持把握长远利益和当前利益、全局利益与局部利益关系;坚持既有利于文物保护、又有利于经济建设和提高人民群众生活质量;坚持中央主导、地方配套、统筹规划、集中资金、重点投入、注重实效;坚持规划先行、突出重点、分步实施、侧重本体、优先展示。

第一,加强基本建设工程中的考古和文物保护工作。为适应国家大中型建设工程和城市基本建设项目日益增多,考古工作任务日趋繁重的形势,国家文物局加强与有关部门协作,逐步规范基本建设考古工作程序,既保证国家经济建设顺利开展,也抢救、保护了一批珍贵文化遗产。以三峡文物保护工程为例,这一工程涉及考古和文物保护项目1087项,在国家文物局组织下,共有110家单位、7000余人参加此项工作,开创了大型文物保护工程规划先行的管理模式和文物保护项目的现代化管理模式,开创了调集全国力量、抢救文物大规模会战的先河,为研究三峡地区历史与文化,积累了大量实物资料,为三峡人民和所有华夏子孙留存了珍贵的记忆,延续了库区的历史文脉。

报到时间:2011年7月5日早8点至晚11点报到地点:社科博源宾馆大堂,王府井大街27号,电话65591155。报到后代表可凭票到华侨大厦一层吃自助餐。

过去的五年中,国家文物局以“两片”、“三线(长城、大运河、丝绸之路)”大遗址保护为重点,以考古遗址公园建设为重要手段,大力推进以大遗址保护为重心的文化遗产保护工作。此间,中央财政向全国23个省市自治区的99处大遗址投入20多亿元人民币专项资金,带动地方政府配套投入300多亿元,保证了一批保护项目顺利开展。具体成果包括:完成100处大遗址保护规划纲要、60多处大遗址保护规划的编制工作;安阳殷墟和高句丽王城王陵成功列入联合国教科文组织《世界遗产名录》;殷墟、良渚、金沙、鸿山等遗址建起了考古遗址博物馆;唐大明宫、隋唐洛阳城、良渚、鸿山等第一批国家考古遗址公园共12家胜利建成挂牌,牛河梁、里耶、长沙窑等考古遗址公园建设已经启动;明长城资源调查和山海关保护维修圆满完成;大运河保护申遗、丝绸之路跨国联合申遗持续推进。

第二,不断提高考古工作的质量和水平。国家积极倡导树立考古项目的课题意识、科技意识和保护意识,通过重要课题和科技进步带动学科发展。结合中华文明探源等国家重点科研课题,有序开展跨区域、多学科合作的考古发掘项目;通过考古设备研发和技术革新提高出土文物应急性保护能力,强调发掘现场第一时间的文物保护工作,最大限度获取考古信息;在考古工作中大力推动GIS技术、三维激光扫描技术等现代科技和科研成果,14C精确测年、孢粉分析技术等新技术、新方法的建立与实践,不断开拓考古学认识的深度与广度,并依托行业重点科研基地,为考古工作提供强有力的技术保障。此外,强调考古工作的服务性,通过参观考古发掘现场、举办讲座等多种方式,让考古工作成果服务社会,服务人民大众。

WEDNESDAY JULY 6TH The Major Conference Room (Map 1,点击查看详细)
7月6日议程 主会场(address A)
Morning: Opening ceremony•Head of the
Chinese Administration of Cultural Heritage, Head of the CASS and
President of WAC 大会致辞(9:00-9:30)•Group photograph 合影
(9:30-9:40)•Six presentations introducing the themes of the
Inter-Congress 主题发言 (9:50-12:00)

在国家文物局主导下,吸引地方政府和社会各界积极参与文化遗产保护的大遗址保护现场会、大遗址保护高峰论坛、大遗址保护工作会议先后在洛阳、无锡、西安、杭州、成都等地举行,会议发布的《西安宣言》、《良渚共识》、《洛阳宣言》等,明确了当前我国大遗址保护的原则、宗旨、路线,地方政府和社会各界保护大遗址的决心和信心空前高涨。可以预言,今后几年中,我国的文化遗产保护事业必将迈上一个新的台阶,树立一块闪亮的里程碑。

第三,全面强化文物安全。中国正处在经济建设和城市化进程迅猛发展的时期,这一时期是文化遗产保护任务最为繁重、最为紧迫的阶段。同时,盗掘古墓葬的犯罪活动日益猖獗,呈现出集团化、智能化、职业化、暴力化的趋势,文物安全形势堪忧。国家文物局将文物安全工作放在重要位置,专设机构负责全国文物安全工作,并积极协调有关部门建立全国文物安全工作部际联席会议制度。2010年我们在全国9个重点省份部署打击文物犯罪专项行动,有力遏制了文物犯罪的高发势头。与此同时,国家严格禁止发掘帝王陵寝,倡导文化资源的可持续保护与利用,使后世子孙也能够分享祖先创造的珍贵历史文化遗产。

Lunch午餐: 12:10-12:50

中国社会科学院是我国人文社科领域最高学术殿堂,学科门类多,著名专家学者多,应该成为我国文化遗产保护研究的核心阵地。我们在若干学术领域、首先是考古学领域,为文化遗产保护做出了一些可喜的成绩。主要表现为:在我国的200多个市县,开展了数千项田野考古工作,为我国的古遗址古墓葬保护提供了大量科学依据;积极投入国家重大建设项目中的考古工作,从早年的三门峡黄河水利工程,到近年的三峡工程、南水北调工程,再到西安、洛阳、安阳等历史古城的城乡建设和经济建设项目,都有我们的贡献;通过各种方式,为各地培养输送了大量考古和文物保护专家;最近几年中,考古研究所实行考古与文化遗产保护并举并重战略,把文化遗产保护研究提高到创建国际知名、国内一流研究所的高度来认识,新设置“文化遗产保护研究中心”,积极推动考古与文保的结合,在遗址保护、考古现场文物保护、实验室考古和出土文物保护等方面,建树颇多;积极投入文化遗产保护理论研究和实践,承担大量文化遗产保护研究课题,倡导考古学与文化遗产保护紧密结合,提出了文化遗产保护类考古、实验室考古等新理念、新概念,为我国的大遗址保护和考古遗址公园建设做出重要的理论和实践贡献;参与百处大遗址保护总体规划、若干大遗址保护规划和展示方案的编制工作;受国家文物局委托,制定了考古发掘项目检查验收办法和标准、大遗址考古工作指导意见和工作要求、“十二五”大遗址考古规划纲要等。

第四,积极鼓励中外合作开展考古和文物保护项目。中国考古学的诞生与不断发展离不开国际考古学者的参与。近年来,中外合作考古和文物保护工作呈现出蓬勃发展的良好势头,我们与多个国家合作开展了文明探源、农业起源、盐业考古、城址考古、出土文物保护等多个方面的研究项目,大大推进了中国和世界考古学的发展。在请进来的同时,中国的考古专业机构和学者也积极走出国门,赴蒙古、肯尼亚、中亚等国家和地区开展合作考古工作,有力推动了中国对外文化交流与合作。今后,中国将欢迎国外有实力的专业考古研究机构来华开展多领域的合作考古项目,共同推动中国和世界考古学的进步。
二、中国考古遗址保护成果
中国的考古遗址保存环境复杂,保护难度大。其中,有一些遗址和墓葬规模宏大、价值重大、影响深远,集中代表了中华民族发祥发展、兴衰演变的历史进程,在中国文明发展史中具有不可替代的重要地位,如殷墟、汉长安城遗址、大明宫遗址、隋唐洛阳城遗址等。我们称之为“大遗址”。随着城市化进程和新农村建设加速,这些大遗址面临着城市发展和新农村建设的多重挤压,生存环境日益恶化。而受到文物保护的局限,民众在遗址区的生产生活受到很多限制,生活条件难以得到改善。因此,这些大遗址逐渐成为城市中脏乱差的地方,甚至被人们视为城市发展的包袱和绊脚石。

Sessions Arrangement会议安排

国家文物局单霁翔局长《在中国社会科学院考古研究所成立60周年庆祝大会上的致辞》中对我们提出:希望中国社会科学院考古研究所充分发挥人才优势,打造我国文化遗产保护领域的智库,成为我国文化遗产保护重要的思想库和智囊团。对于这个期望,我们需要加倍努力方能实现。

为扭转这一局面,让这些大遗址得到有效保护与合理利用,充分发挥它们对地方经济社会和谐发展的促进作用,2005年中国政府正式设立大遗址保护专项资金,在过去的六年投入20多亿元启动大遗址保护工程。在各方的共同努力下,大遗址保护工作逐渐深入人心,得到地方政府、广大民众和社会各界的理解与支持,取得了丰硕的成果:我们首次发布了明长城测量数据,让“爱我中华,保护长城”成为全社会的共识;全面启动了大运河遗产的资源调查、考古发掘、保护规划编制、遗产保护和环境整治等各项工作;积极推进丝绸之路大遗址保护和跨国联合申遗工作,开展了丝绸之路沿线48处遗址点的保护工作;高句丽王城、王陵和贵族墓葬以及安阳殷墟保护工程成果显著,两处遗址均被联合国教科文组织列入《世界遗产名录》;良渚博物院、金沙博物馆、鸿山遗址博物馆等一批高水平的遗址博物馆相继建成,汉阳陵、大明宫等大遗址保护示范园区初具规模,首批12家国家考古遗址公园正式公布;目前,中国已初步形成了以两片、三线(长城、大运河、丝绸之路)为核心、以100处大遗址为支撑的大遗址保护格局,大遗址保护状况得到了初步改善。

Afternoon: Parallel sessions start in two different meeting rooms: all
the themes will be fully discussed and debated in each group, the
arrangement of conference rooms: G1 Conference Room 1, G2 Conference
Room 2 (Map 1,点击查看详细).
7月6日下午:甲乙两组分别就会议的各大主题开始进行发言和讨论,持续至7日下午。甲组在第一会场,乙组在第二会场(见图一,点击查看详细,address
B)。

我认为,我院应该在如下方面为我国的文化遗产保护做出积极贡献:

在一系列理论研究和实践的基础上,我们提出了《大遗址保护西安共识》、《关于建设考古遗址公园的良渚共识》和《大遗址保护洛阳宣言》,逐渐形成了大遗址保护的自身特色。大遗址保护是一种集成创新。它创新了保护理念,更加关注整体保护和可持续发展。充分吸纳国际文化遗产保护的真实性和完整性原则,重视遗址本体和环境风貌的协调一致。通过科学编制保护规划,统筹考虑大遗址考古、保护、研究、展示和利用,正确处理保护与利用,保护与发展的关系,让考古遗址和它所蕴含的历史信息得到传承和发展。同时,更加注意以人为本,尊重社会民众对文化遗产工作的知情权、参与权、监督权和受益权,充分考虑地方民众的需要和诉求,使他们更加充分享受到考古和文物保护的成果。它创新了保护模式,不再仅仅采用单纯的回填保护方式,而是通过积极建设考古遗址公园、遗址博物馆、大遗址保护示范园区等,使大遗址保护融入社会经济发展和民众生活,提升城市环境品质,充分发挥大遗址的宣教功能和社会服务功能,让大遗址焕发出新的生机与活力,变被动的保护,为主动的发展。它创新了保护机制,通过进一步加强与财政、建设、旅游、测绘等部门的沟通合作,整合各部门、各行业的资源和人员优势,建立起更为有效的合作机制,将大遗址保护从部门行为上升为国家战略,从政府行为上升为全社会共同参与的公益事业。此外,我们与湖北、陕西、甘肃、四川等地方人民政府签署了共建大遗址片区的协议,积极探索中央和地方在大遗址保护管理体制机制的新实践。

【7月6日下午发言内容】

第一,加强文化遗产学科建设。当前主要是抓好文化遗产保护基础理论研究、政策法规研究、科学技术研究等。

各位学者,各位代表,中国的考古和大遗址保护虽然取得了很大的成就,但是在新的形势下也面临着诸多的挑战。我们深知保护好、研究好、利用好、发展好以大遗址为代表的历史文化遗产,是我们义不容辞的历史使命,也是我们对国际社会的庄严承诺。中国考古和文化遗产保护事业离不开国际的智慧,中国将以更加开放的胸怀,更加积极的态度,欢迎各国学者广泛参与其中,利用各位的专业学识和背景,以国际化的眼光和视角为我们出谋划策,让人类共有的文化遗产在我们的不懈努力下得到永续流传!

Group One: Chairs: Claire Smith and Tang Jigen Conference Room 1

第二,做好大遗址考古科研。考古学是文化遗产保护的基础。在考古科研中应切实贯彻文化遗产保护理念,积极推动考古科研活动向着更加科学、更加规范、更加注重遗址保护的方向发展。当前,大遗址考古应将为大遗址保护提供充分、可靠的科学依据作为主要任务。

谢谢。

G1 Session 1Development Pressures on Heritage Sites and Landscapes
[13:00-13:40]Twin Horns of a Dilemma: Heritage Preservation and the
U.S. military transition from Okinawa to Guam (Dr John A Peterson)
[20’]Hong Kong and Lingnan: The Key to Improve Cultural Interpretation
in Heritage Management (Celine Y Y Lai) [20’]

第三,推进实验室考古。实验室考古是我院学者提出的新概念,旨在推动考古学的转型发展——把考古发掘研究与文化遗产保护紧密地融为一体,在考古科研和文化遗产保护中更多地采用新的科技手段。可以肯定,这是中国考古学新的学术生长点,也是考古学发展的重要方向。我院考古研究所在这个方面已经取得可喜成绩,所以,国家文物局提出希望以此为基础创建“实验室考古国家中心”,是个很好的倡议。我们应该从考古学学科发展甚至是从文化遗产学科建设的高度来认识和落实之。

(童明康:国家文物局 副局长,中国古迹遗址保护协会 理事长,中国考古学会
副理事长)

G1 Session 2World Heritage Nomination and Management Planning
[13:40-14:20]Proving the Outstanding “Universal” Value of Japanese
Archaeological Sites: in search of integrity for the serial nominations
(I Yumiko Ogawa)[20’]The Onsite Preservation and Laboratory
Archaeology of Majiayuan Warring-States Cemetery in Zhangjiachuan County
王辉 [20’]

第四,推动考古遗址公园和考古遗址博物馆建设。遗址保护是考古学可持续发展的基本保障。国家文物局正在积极推动的考古遗址公园和考古遗址博物馆建设,是我国文化遗产保护的重要举措。考古学界有责任、有义务、也有理由参入到这项事业中来,让我们的科研成果成为全体国民的共享资源。

The Archaeological Management Policies and Site Protection of China

Tea break 茶歇 [14:20-14:30]

第五,做好文化遗产保护的教育和培训工作。充分利用我们的人才优势和科研资源优势,带动地方考古科研和文化遗产保护研究。采取多种方式,培养各式文化遗产保护实用人才。(王伟光:中国社会科学院常务副院长)

Tong Mingkang

G1 Session 3 Managing the multiple use of, and pressures on, heritage
sites [14:30-16:00]Current heritage management principles that inform
the activities of the World Archaeological Congress (Claire Smith)Copies
in the Values Presentation of Archaeological Sites (Jigen Tang)
唐际根The Protection of the Ancient Cities, Towns and Settlements in
Xinjiang and the Construction of Heritage Parks (Wu Xinhua) 巫新华
[20’]Current Trends and Practices in Archaeological Heritage
Management in Thailand (Thanik Lertcharnrit)The Theory and Practices on
Industrial Heritages 戴俭

Be the Pioneer of Cultural Heritage Protection

(Deputy Director of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage,
President of China International Council on Monuments and Sites, Vice
Chairman of the Executive Committee of Chinese Society of Archaeology)

Group Two: Chairs: Chen Xingcan and Peter Stone Conference Room 2

Wang Weiguang (Executive Deputy President, Chinese Academy of Social
Sciences)

Ladies and Gentlemen, my dear friends: Good Morning!

G2 Session 1Development Pressures on Heritage Sites and Landscapes
[13:00- 14:00]The Heritage Value and the Character of the Settlement
and Cultural Landscape of Aufu City in Shandong Province, China (GU
Jianhui) 谷建辉 [20’]The Archaeological Researches on the Capital
Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom and the Construction of
Heritage Park(Jin Xudong) 金旭东 [20’]The Cultural Heritage Protection
in the Middle Course of South-North Water Transfer Project 楚小龙
[20’]

As a multi-ethnic country with a vast territory, China has a long
history and splendid culture, the cultural heritage of China is very
rich and diversified. They are the crystallization of Chinese culture
and the bond of the unity of Chinese nationality. To study, protect and
pass down these valuable cultural heritages are related to the
construction of the common spiritual home of whole nation.

I am very glad to be invited to participate in the Inter-Congress
Meeting of the World Archaeological Conference and to discuss with the
archaeological experts and scholars from all over the world on the
current Cultural Heritage Management in East and Southeast Asia and
other hotspot and difficult issues in the international archaeological
researches and academic developments. First, on behalf of the State
Administration of Cultural Heritage, I hereby warmly welcome all
friends, and also express my sincere congratulations to the successful
opening of this important assembly.

G2 Session 2World Heritage Nomination and Management Planning
[14:00-15:00]Managing World Heritage sites and their generic value
(Peter Stone) [20’]The Study on Values and Existing State of
Preservation and Management of the Historic Monuments of Dengfeng in
“the Center of Heaven and Earth” 任伟 [20’]The Protection of Sui-Tang
Luoyang City and the Construction of the National Heritage Park 余杰
[20’]

Workers of humanities and social sciences are the main power of the
cultural heritage researches; the experts and scholars of archeology,
history, ethnology, religion, literature and other fields must stand on
the forefront of cultural heritage studies and dedicate to the cultural
heritage protection cause. We should actively and consciously put
meeting the needs of cultural heritage protection on the important
position of our research work.

Since the remote ancient times, the ancestors of all nationalities in
China have been working, living and multiplying in this fertile land.
Five thousand years of Chinese Civilization develops uninterruptedly,
China’s historical and cultural heritages of large quantities and
diversified types are widely distributed, which are the embodiments of
the strong vitality of Chinese Civilization, the roots and veins of the
Chinese Nationality and also the valuable cultural treasure of the whole
humankind.

Tea break 茶歇 [15:00-15:10]

During the past decade, especially in the recent years, our cultural
heritage protection focused on large site protection has made tremendous
progress; the government attached great importance, the society took
wide participation; the investments are large, and the projects are
numerous and the achievements are remarkable. All of these not only
effectively improved the conservation status of large sites and
efficiently enhanced the sustainability of cultural heritages, but also
forcefully promoted the economic and social developments and the
improvement of the people’s lives.

The Chinese government regards protecting, passing down and developing
the precious historical and cultural heritage as one of the important
government functions, and actively explores the unique paths of cultural
heritage protection matching China’s national conditions and the
development demands of this cause. In recent years, our government is
increasing investment and support in cultural heritage protection,
especially in the protection and management of archaeological sites,
emphasizing the absorbing and synthesizing the valuable experience and
achievements of international cultural heritage protection, adapting
them into China’s actual conditions, and carrying out a lot of fruitful
work. Today, I take this opportunity to briefly introduce China’s
current archaeological management policies and site protection of the
newest results to our counterparts.

G2 Session 3Managing the multiple use of, and pressures on, heritage
sites [15:10-16:10]A Brief Introduction to Laboratory Archaeology (Du
Jinpeng) 杜金鹏 [20’]Daming Palace: The Hot Large Site and the
Beautiful Heritage Park (Zhou Bing) 周冰 [20’]

In 1997, the State Council promulgated the Circular of the State Council
Concerning the Strengthening and Improvement of the Work Related to
Cultural Relics, which put forward the idea of the organic integration
of the large site protection with economic and social developments and
the improving of the people’s living standards, and fundamentally
changed the unfavorable situation of the ancient heritage protection. In
2002, the State Administration for Cultural Heritage issued the Large
Site Protection Scheme in the Tenth Five-year Plan to start the
implementation of 50 key projects of large site protection. In 2005, the
State Administration of Cultural Heritage and Ministry of Finance
jointly designed the General Protection Scheme of the Large Sites during
the Eleventh Five-Year Plan Period to determine 100 large sites as the
key protection projects. In 2006, the State Council promulgated the
National Outline of Cultural Development Program in the Eleventh
Five-Year Plan, in which these 100 large sites are listed as key
projects and constructions of national cultural heritage protection.

One:China’s Current Archaeological Management Policies

Banquet: 18:30 Prime Hotel 2nd Floor Dining Room 晚宴 18:30
华侨大厦2层宴会厅

During the past five years, the State Administration of Cultural
Heritage, the local governments and cultural heritage workers of all of
the regions, under the direction of the Scientific Outlook on
Development and with the spirits of emancipating the mind, exploring
innovation and being brave on practices, found a unique path of cultural
heritage protection matching China’s national conditions and
characteristics. We have done the following: holding on coordinating the
relationships between the long-term interests and the immediate
interests and the overall interests and partial interests; holding on
the principle of being not only favorable to cultural heritage
protection, but also favorable to economic development and improving the
people’s quality of life; holding on the principles of guiding by the
central government and cooperating of the local governments, overall
planning, concentrating the investments on key projects and
effects-oriented; insisting that planning in advance, focusing on the
key projects, conducting step by step, paying attention on the
protection and demonstration of the main body of the cultural heritages.

China is the largest developing country in the world. For the national
sustainable, healthy and rapid development, the continuous improving of
the domestic economic level and the people’s living conditions will
remain the Chinese government’s main task for a rather long time.
According to China’s current national conditions and the situation of
the cultural heritage protection, we defined and implemented
archaeological management policies with Chinese characteristics, mainly
in the following aspects:

THURSDAY JULY 7: MORNING 【7月7日上午发言内容】

During the past five years, the State Administration of Cultural
Heritage made great efforts to promote the cultural heritage protection
by focusing on the important archaeological sites in the “Two Plots
(Xi’an and Luoyang)” and along the “Three Lines (the Great Wall, Grand
Canal and the Silk Road)” and making the construction of heritage parks
as the key measures. For this, the central government invested two
billion yuan of special funds to ninety-nine large sites in twenty-three
provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions to promote local
government to invest thirty billion matching to ensure the smooth
implementation of a set of preservation projects. The concrete results
include: the completion of protection plan schemes of one hundred large
sites, the completion of protection plans of more than sixth large
sites; the successes of Yinxu Site in Anyang City and Capital Cities and
Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom to be listed as the UNESCO’s World
Heritages; the completion of the Archaeological Site Museums of Yinxu,
Liangzhu, Jinsha, Hongshan and so on; the successful completion of the
first group of National Heritage Parks including the Tang Daming Palace,
Sui and Tang Luoyang City, Liangzhu, Hongshan and so on, in total of
twelve Sites; the starting up of the construction of the National
Heritage Parks including Niuheliang, Liye, Changsha Kiln, etc.; the
fulfillments of the resource survey of the Ming Great Wall and the
maintenance project of Shanhaiguan Pass; the application of the Grand
Canal and the international cooperative application of the Silk Road for
the World Heritages are being continued.

First, strengthening the archaeological and cultural heritage
conservation work in the basic constructions. To be adapted to the
situation of the increasing large and medium national constructions and
urban infrastructure projects and increasingly onerous archaeological
tasks, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage strengthened the
collaboration with relevant departments to gradually standardize the
procedures of archaeological work in basic constructions, both to ensure
the smooth implementation of national economic constructions as well as
to rescue and protect as many as possible precious cultural heritages.
For Example, the Cultural Heritage Protection of the Three Gorges
Project, which involved 1087 archaeological and conservation projects,
was organized by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage and
organized a total of 110 institutions and more than 7,000 people to
participate in, creating modes of large-scale conservation planning in
advance of the engineering projects and the modern conservation project
management, initiating the large-scale battles by organizing nationwide
forces to rescue cultural heritages, accumulating a lot of physical data
for the studies of the history and culture of the Three Gorges region
and retaining the precious memories and historical context of the
reservoir area for the local people and their descendants.

G1 Session 3 Managing the multiple use of, and pressures on, heritage
sites [9:30-12:00]
On the Issues Related to the Protection of Large
Sites: Focused on the Protection Status of the World Heritage of the
Koguryo Sites and Tombs in Ji’an City 吕军 [20’]The Onsite
Preservation of and Researches on the Textiles Found in Archaeological
Excavations(Wang Yarong) 王亚蓉 [20’]The Laboratory Micro-excavation
and the Relevant Issues (Zhao Xichen) 赵西晨 [20’]The restoration of
archaeological site in Japan: from the examples of Heijokyu
(Wakabayashi, Kunihiko) [20’]The Headgear Adornment Composition of Li
Chui of the Tang Dynasty: Protective Recovery and Restoration Yang
Junchang, Annegret Gerick and Hou Gailing 杨军昌 [20’]

Under the directing of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage,
the local governments and the people of all walks of lives actively
participate in the cultural heritage protection activities, including
the on-the-spot meetings and the Large Site Protection Forums; the large
site protection work conferences have been held in Luoyang, Wuxi, Xi’an,
Hangzhou, Chengdu and other places, the “Xi’an Manifesto”, “Liangzhu
Consensus”, “Luoyang Manifesto” and other documents published by which
cleared the principles, purposes and approaches of the current large
site protection of our country. The determination and confidence of the
local government and the society to protect large sites are much firmer
than ever before. We can promise that in the next few years, our
cultural heritage protection cause will enter a new stage and erect a
shining milestone.

Second, increasing the quality and level of archaeological work. The
Government actively promotes the awareness of archaeological topics, the
awareness of science and technology and that of conservation and
bringing up the academic developments through important projects and
scientific and technological progresses. Associated with the Exploration
on the Origin of Chinese Civilization Project and other key national
research projects, the trans-regional, multi-disciplinary cooperative
archaeological projects are orderly conducted; the abilities of
emergency protection of the unearthed artifacts are improved through the
research and development of archaeological equipment and technological
innovation; the onsite cultural heritage conservation at the first
moment in the excavation scenes is stressed to maximize access to
archaeological information; the GIS, three-dimensional laser scanning
technologies and other modern scientific and technological products are
vigorously promoted in the archaeological projects; the establishments
and practices of 14C precise dating, pollen analysis and other new
technologies and methods constantly expand the depth and breadth of
understanding of archeology; relying on professional scientific research
bases, the archaeological work is provided with strong technical
support. In addition, the emphasis on the service nature of
archaeological work and the various ways to publicize the archaeology,
such as inviting visits to the archaeological excavation sites, lectures
and so on, make the achievements of archaeological work serve the
society and the public.

Tea break茶歇 [10:20-10:30]

China Academy of Social Sciences is the highest academic institution in
the fields of humanities and social sciences of our country; she has the
most disciplines and well-known experts and scholars, so she ought to be
the center of our cultural heritage protection researches. We have made
some encouraging results in some fields, especially the ones of
archeology, for our cultural heritage protection cause. The main ones
are: in more than two hundred cities and counties, the scholars from
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences carried out thousands of
archaeological fieldwork projects, which provides large amount of
scientific proofs for the protection of the ancient sites and tombs in
China; they actively involved in the archaeological work in the major
national construction projects from the Sanmenxia Yellow River Hydraulic
Engineering Project in the early years, to the Three Gorges Project,
South-North Water Transfer Project and the urban and rural economic
development projects in Xi’an, Luoyang, Anyang and other historical
cities in the recent years; by various ways, the CASS trained and
provided a large number of archaeological and cultural heritage
preservation personnel for the local institutions; in recent years, the
Institute of Archaeology applied strategy of paying equal attention to
the archeology and cultural heritage protection, and raising the
importance of the researches on the cultural heritage protection to the
level of one of the standards of a world-renowned and domestic
first-class Institute. The new-established Conservation and Research
Center for Cultural Heritage actively promotes the integration of
archaeology and cultural protection, and has made some achievements in
the site protection, the onsite preservation of artifacts in excavation
scenes, laboratory archaeology and the conservation of unearthed
cultural relics, and so on; the scholars of the Institute of Archaeology
are actively involved in cultural heritage conservation theoretical
researches and practices, undertake a large number of cultural heritage
protection research projects, and have proposed new concepts and ideas
such as the archaeological specialties of cultural heritage protection
and laboratory archaeology, which contributed greatly to theories and
practices of the large site protection and heritage park constructions;
they participated in the designing of the general protection plan of the
one hundred large sites and the editing of the conservation and
demonstration programs of a number of large sites; commissioned by the
State Administration of Cultural Heritage, they constituted the
inspection and acceptance standards of the archaeological excavation
projects, the guiding opinions of the archaeological work of large sites
work requirements and Large Site Archaeology Scheme in the Twelfth
Five-year Plan and so on.

Third, overall enhancing the security of cultural relics. China is in
the process of rapid economic development and urbanization, which is the
most heavy and urgent time for the cultural heritage protection. At the
same time, the criminal activity of looting of ancient tombs is showing
a collectivizing, intelligent, professional and violent trend, and the
security of the cultural heritages is at high risk. The State
Administration of Cultural Heritage puts the security of the cultural
heritage on an important position, and has set a dedicated agency
responsible for the nationwide security of the cultural heritages, and
actively coordinates relevant departments to establish a national
cultural heritage security inter-ministerial joint conference system. In
2010, we deployed a special campaign to fight cultural heritage crimes
in nine major provinces, which effectively held back the momentum of
high incidence of cultural heritage crimes. At the same time, the state
strictly prohibits excavation of the imperial mausoleums, and advocates
the sustainable protection and utilization of cultural resources, so
that our future generations can also enjoy the valuable historic and
cultural heritages created by our ancestors.

Global and Local Interface in the Management of Cultural Heritage in
Indonesia (Daud Aris Tanudirjo) [20’]Foreign archaeologists engaging
with local archaeologists (Masakage Murano) [20’]Utilization of a new
visualization method for the three dimensional data to heritage sites
(Kiyohide Saito) [20’]

In his Celebration Speech of the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Institute
of Archaeology, Mr. Shan Jixiang, the Director of the State
Administration of Cultural Heritage, hopes us to give the personnel
advantage into full play to build think tank of our cultural heritage
protection field and to become a major intelligence bank of the cultural
heritage protection of our country. For this expectation, we need to
redouble our efforts to achieve.

Fourth, positively encouraging international cooperative archaeological
and heritage conservation projects. The birth and continuous development
of Chinese Archaeology cannot leave the international archaeologists’
participation. In recent years, Sino-foreign joint archaeological and
conservation work has shown a sound momentum of vigorous development: we
have conducted cooperation with many countries on the origins of
civilization and agriculture, salt industry archeology, city site
archeology, cultural relic protection and other aspects of the
researches, which greatly promoted the development of archeology of
China and the world. At the same time of “Inviting in”, China’s
archaeological institutions and scholars are also actively “Walking out”
abroad, who have been to Mongolia, Kenya, Central Asia and other
countries and regions to cooperate archaeological work, which strongly
propelled China’s international cultural communication and cooperation.
In the future, China will welcome international professionals having the
strength to carry out archaeological research in China to do cooperative
archaeological projects in various fields and jointly moreover promote
the progress of archeology of China and the world.Two. The Achievements
of the Archaeological Site Protection in China

Lunch time: 午餐12:00-12:30

I think, our academy should make the following contributions to the
cultural heritage protection cause of our country:

China’s preservation contexts of archaeological sites are complex, and
the protection is difficult. Among them, some large-scale sites and
tombs have significant values and far-reaching influences, which are the
condensations and irreplaceable important roles of the development
Chinese Nationality and the historical process of evolution in the
history of Chinese civilization, such as the Yinxu Site, the Han
Chang’an City, the Daming Palace of the Tang Dynasty, the Sui and Tang
Luoyang City and so on, which we call as “large sites”. With the
accelerated urbanization and the construction of new rural areas, these
large sites are facing multiple encroaching from the urban rural
directions, and their peripheral environments are getting worse and
worse. By the limitations of the cultural relic protection regulations,
the people living in the site area of production subject to many
restrictions, and their difficult living conditions are improving.
Therefore, these large sites gradually become dirty and messy places in
the urban areas, and are even seen as a burden and obstacle to urban
development.

G2 Session 3Managing the multiple use of, and pressures on, heritage
sites [9:30-12:00]
Reconstructed archaeological sites in Japan: are
they ‘authentic’? Akira Matsuda [20’]Cultural Heritage, environmental
Impact Assessment, and People (Thomas F King) [20’]Underwater
Archaeology and Heritage (Liu Shuguang) 刘曙光 [20’]Achievements and
Reflection: Focused on the Cultural Heritage Protection along the
Shandong Section of South-North Water Transfer Project(Wang Shougong)
王守功 [20’]

First, strengthening the disciplinary construction of cultural heritage
protection discipline. At present, our main tasks are concentrating on
the researches on the basic researches, policies, laws and regulations
and scientific and technological researches of cultural heritage
protection.

To reverse this situation, to get these sites to be effectively
protected and rationally utilized and give full play of their promoting
function to local economic development and social harmony, in 2005 the
Chinese Government officially set up special funds to protect large
sites; in the past six years since, more than two billion yuan is
invested to start large site protection projects. under the joint
efforts of all social aspects, the idea of large site protection has
been widely accepted, got the understanding and support of local
governments, the general public and all walks of lives, and achieved
fruitful results: We for the first time published the survey data of the
Ming Great Wall, so that “I love China, I protect the Great Wall” became
a society-wide consensus; we comprehensively started the resource
surveys, archaeological excavations conservation scheme designing,
heritage protection and environmental remediation and other work of the
Grand Canal heritage; we actively promoted the international joint
application of Silk Road for World Heritage, for which we carried out
protections of 48 loci along the Silk Road; the protections of the
Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom and the Yinxu
Site in Anyang have achieved remarkable results, the two sites of which
are listed by UNESCO as “World Heritages”; the Liangzhu Museum, Jinsha
Museum, Hongshan Site Museum and a number of high-level site museums
have been completed; the Yangling Museum of the Han Dynasty, the Daming
Palace Site protection and other large demonstration zones have
preliminarily shaped, the first set of twelve National Heritage Parks
have been officially published; at present, China has formed a large
site protection network centered by Two Plots (Xi’an and Luoyang) and
Three Lines (the Great Wall, Grand Canal and the Silk Road) and
backboned by 100 large sites, and the large site protection status has
been initially improved.

Tea break茶歇 [10:20-10:30]

Second, doing well the researches on the archaeologies of large sites.
Archaeology is the foundation for cultural heritage protection. In
archaeological researches, the idea of cultural heritage protection
should be effectively implemented, and the archaeological research
activities should be directed to the route of more scientific, more
standardized and more emphasis on the site protection. At present,
archaeological fieldwork on the large sites should make providing
adequate and reliable scientific evidence to the protection of these
sites as the main task.

Based on a series of theoretical research and practices, we proposed the
“Xi’an Manifesto on Large Site Protection”, “Liangzhu Consensus on the
Construction of Archaeological Site Parks” and the “Declaration of
Luoyang Manifesto on Large Site Protection” and gradually formed the
unique characteristics of large site protection of our own. Large site
protection is an integrated innovation. It innovated protection ideas
which are more concerned with the overall protection and sustainable
development. It fully absorbed the international cultural heritage
protection principles of authenticity and integrity, attention to the
bodies of the sites and environmental landscape coherence. Conservation
schemes are designed through the scientific preparation with considering
the archaeology, conservation, research, demonstration and utilization;
correctly deal with the relations between protection and utilization and
protection and development, so that these archaeological sites and the
historical information they contain can be passed down and developed. At
the same time, more attention is paid to people-oriented principle,
respecting the social people of the information, participation,
supervision and beneficiary of the cultural heritage, fully considering
the needs and aspirations of local people, so that they can more fully
enjoy the achievements of archaeological fieldwork and heritage
protection. It has created a protected mode, which no longer just by a
simple backfill protection, but by actively building archaeological
parks, site museums and/or large site protection demonstration gardens,
so that the large site protections can be grafted into socio-economic
development and people’s lives to enhance the city environmental
quality, to fully play the roles of publicizing, educating and social
service functions of these large sites, make the large sites regain new
vigor and vitality, change from passive protection to active
development. It has created a protection mechanism by further
strengthening the communication and cooperation with the financial,
construction, tourism, surveying and other departments and integrating
all departments and industry resources and personnel advantages to
establish more effective cooperation mechanism to raise large site
protection from the department activity to a national strategy, and from
the government acts to the public welfare participated in by the whole
society. In addition, we have signed agreements to cooperatively build
large site zones with Hubei, Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan and some other
local governments, and have been actively exploring new mechanisms for
protection and management of large sites under the collaboration of the
central and local institutions.

Liangzhu Museum: A Practical Model of Large Site Preservation and
Demonstration (Jiang Weidong) 蒋卫东 [20’]The Practice of the
Laboratory Archaeology on Fuquanshan Site (Song Jian) 宋健
[20’]Economic attributes of cultural heritage (Liu Junmin) 刘军民
[20’]

Third, promoting the Laboratory Archaeology. Laboratory Archaeology is a
new concept put forth by the scholars of our academy, the goal of which
is to promote the transformational development of archeology – the tight
integration of the archaeological excavations and researches with the
cultural heritage protection, for which more new scientific and
technological means should be applied. To be sure, this is a new
academic growth point of Chinese Archaeology, as well as an important
tendency of archaeology of the world. The Institute of Archaeology of
our academy has achieved gratifying results, therefore, the State
Administration of Cultural Heritage suggested to build a “National
Center for Laboratory Archaeology” based on them, and this is a good
initiative. We should understand and implement this task from the level
of the disciplinary development of archeology and even the disciplinary
construction of cultural heritage protection.

Dear experts and distinguished delegates, the large archaeological site
protection of China has made great achievements, but is also facing many
challenges in the new situation. We deeply understand that to well
protect, research, utilize and develop the large sites as the
representatives of historical and cultural heritages is our bounden
historic mission as well as our solemn commitment to the international
community. The archaeology and cultural heritage protection causes of
China are inseparable from international intelligence; the China will
welcome the broad participation of international scholars with more open
mind and a more positive attitude and hope you use the professional
knowledge and background and the international views and perspective for
us to make plans, so that the cultural heritages shared by the whole
mankind to be sustainable spread in our relentless efforts!

THURSDAY JULY 7: AFTERNOON 【7月7日下午发言内容】

Fourth, promoting the construction of archaeological site parks and
museums. Archaeological site protection is the basic guarantee for
sustainable development of archaeology. State Administration of Cultural
Heritage is actively promoting the constructions of archaeological site
parks and museums, which is an important measure to protect the cultural
heritage of our country. Archaeologists have the responsibility,
obligation and the reasons to take part in this cause to make our
research achievements into the resources shared by all of the citizens.

Thank you!

G1 Session 4Local community participation, interpretation and
education [13:00- 16:00]
Relics, Display and Museums – The Hundred
Year Development of Museums in Taiwan (Shu-Li Wang) 王淑丽 [20’]An
attempt to grasp of overall history-cultural heritages in Hyogo, Japan
(Wataru Uozo) [20’]The Rise of a Man-Made God and the Fall of a
Pilgrimage Temple: A Case Study of the Promotion and Management of a
Heritage Site in Zhejiang Province, China 赵巍 [20’]

Fifth, doing well the education and training of cultural heritage
protection. Fully take advantage of our personnel and research
resources, promote local archaeological and cultural heritage protection
researches. Various ways can be taken to cultivate practical personnel
for all types and fields of cultural heritage protection.

Tea break茶歇 [14:20-14:30]

Heritage field’s disinterest in popular religion (Denis Byrne)
[20’]The Ngadjuri Heritage Project (Vince Copley, Li Huidong, Gary
Jackson, Claire Smith, and Qiaowei Wei ) [20’]Kansai Archaeology Days
(Katsuyuki Okamura) [20’]

Discussion of G1 第一组讨论 [16:00-16:30]

G2 Session 4 Local community participation, interpretation and
education [13:00- 16:00]
The Role of Education in Heritage Management
– a case study from El Salvador, Central America (Mizuho Ikeda)
[20’]From Government-Oriented to Public-Involved: A Game of Theory
Analysis of the Interest of Cultural Heritage Protection (Wei Qiaowei)
[20’]Public Archaeology in China: Old Belief and New Discipline
(Jialing Fan) 范佳翎 [20’]Religious Environment Conservation,
Protection and Management in Western Part of China 杨新 [20’]

Tea break茶歇 [14:20-14:30]

Mongolian Cultural Heritage Management and Protection in North China
(Bai Jinsong)白劲松 [20’]Strengthen the Cultural Heritage Protection
Education and Propel the Development of Cultural Heritage Cause 方辉
[20’]The Status Quo of the Cultural Heritage Publicity in China(Yuan
Guangkuo ) 袁广阔 [20’]General Review on World Heritage Development
(Zhao Xueyong) 赵学勇 [20’]

Discussion of G2 第二组讨论 [16:00-16:30]

Buffet 18:30 1st floor Prime Hotel

FRIDAY JULY 8TH 【7月8日北京参观:周口店、琉璃河、大葆台】 Visits to the
Peking Man site, the Western Zhou Dynasty cemetery site at Liulihe, and
the Han Dynasty burial site at Dabaotai

JULY 9TH-11TH 【7月9~11日会后参观:西线西安、南线安阳洛阳】Post-Congress
tours

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